## National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards

1. Number and Operations Standard
• 1a. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems
• use number-theory arguments to justify relationships involving whole numbers
• understand vectors and matrices as systems that have some of the properties of the real-number system
• compare and contrast the properties of numbers and number systems, including the rational and real numbers, and understand complex numbers as solutions to quadratic equations that do not have real solutions
• develop a deeper understanding of very large and very small numbers and of various representations of them
• 1b. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another
• develop an understanding of permutations and combinations as counting techniques
• develop an understanding of properties of, and representations for, the addition and multiplication of vectors and matrices
• judge the effects of such operations as multiplication, division, and computing powers and roots on the magnitudes of quantities
• 1c. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates
• judge the reasonableness of numerical computations and their results
• develop fluency in operations with real numbers, vectors, and matrices, using mental computation or paper-and-pencil calculations for simple cases and technology for more-complicated cases
2. Algebra Standard
• 2a. Understand patterns, relations, and functions
• interpret representations of functions of two variables
• understand and compare the properties of classes of functions, including exponential, polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and periodic functions
• understand and perform transformations such as arithmetically combining, composing, and inverting commonly used functions, using technology to perform such operations on more-complicated symbolic expressions
• analyze functions of one variable by investigating rates of change, intercepts, zeros, asymptotes, and local and global behavior
• understand relations and functions and select, convert flexibly among, and use various representations for them
• generalize patterns using explicitly defined and recursively defined functions
• 2b. Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols
• judge the meaning, utility, and reasonableness of the results of symbol manipulations, including those carried out by technology
• use a variety of symbolic representations, including recursive and parametric equations, for functions and relations
• use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships
• write equivalent forms of equations, inequalities, and systems of equations and solve them with fluencyâmentally or with paper and pencil in simple cases and using technology in all cases
• understand the meaning of equivalent forms of expressions, equations, inequalities, and relations
• 2c. Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships
• draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled
• use symbolic expressions, including iterative and recursive forms, to represent relationships arising from various contexts
• identify essential quantitative relationships in a situation and determine the class or classes of functions that might model the relationships
• 2d. Analyze change in various contexts
• approximate and interpret rates of change from graphical and numerical data
3. Geometry Standard
4. Measurement Standard
5. Data Analysis and Probability Standard
• 5a. Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them
• compute basic statistics and understand the distinction between a statistic and a parameter
• understand histograms, parallel box plots, and scatterplots and use them to display data
• understand the meaning of measurement data and categorical data, of univariate and bivariate data, and of the term variable
• know the characteristics of well-designed studies, including the role of randomization in surveys and experiments
• understand the differences among various kinds of studies and which types of inferences can legitimately be drawn from each
• 5b. Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data
• identify trends in bivariate data and find functions that model the data or transform the data so that they can be modeled
• recognize how linear transformations of univariate data affect shape, center, and spread
• display and discuss bivariate data where at least one variable is categorical
• for bivariate measurement data, be able to display a scatterplot, describe its shape, and determine regression coefficients, regression equations, and correlation coefficients using technological tools
• for univariate measurement data, be able to display the distribution, describe its shape, and select and calculate summary statistics
• 5c. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data
• understand how basic statistical techniques are used to monitor process characteristics in the workplace
• evaluate published reports that are based on data by examining the design of the study, the appropriateness of the data analysis, and the validity of conclusions
• understand how sample statistics reflect the values of population parameters and use sampling distributions as the basis for informal inference
• use simulations to explore the variability of sample statistics from a known population and to construct sampling distributions
• 5d. Understand and apply basic concepts of probability
• understand how to compute the probability of a compound event
• understand the concepts of conditional probability and independent events
• compute and interpret the expected value of random variables in simple cases
• use simulations to construct empirical probability distributions
• understand the concepts of sample space and probability distribution and construct sample spaces and distributions in simple cases
6. Process Standard
• 6a. Problem Solving
• build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving
• solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
• apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems
• monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving
• 6b. Reasoning and Proof
• recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics
• make and investigate mathematical conjectures
• develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs
• select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof
• 6c. Communication
• organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication
• communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others
• analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others
• use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely
• 6d. Connections
• recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas
• understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole
• recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics
• 6e. Representation
• create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas
• select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems
• use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena